6) Some of the children (45%) were taking various types of medications, which did not change during the study. A comparison of the baseline levels of the autism groups taking and not-taking medications revealed little difference between the two groups in their nutritional and metabolic status . There was a trend that the medicated group had less improvement than the unmedicated group in the Average Score of the PGI-R.
The supplement group improved significantly more than the placebo group on the PGI-R Average Change and on several of the PGI-R subscales. On the PGI-R subscales, the most significant improvements were (in order) in the areas of Hyperactivity, Tantrumming, Overall, and Receptive Language. We hypothesize that longer treatment may result in greater improvements. There was wide variation in degree of improvement, with some participants experiencing little benefit, and some experiencing moderate or substantial benefit.
Serum iron and serum ferritin were similar in the autism and neurotypical groups. A previous study  found that 8 of 96 American children with ASD were anemic (haemoglobin < 110 g/l). In that study, the age range of the general group was 3-13 yr, but 7 of the 8 autism cases were in children under age 5. Another study  found that 16% of 96 Canadian children with ASD ages 1-10 yr had low serum ferritin (< 10-12 mcg/L), with little effect of age. The present study of older children with ASD (ages 5-16 yr) found only 2% of the children had serum ferritin levels below 12 mcg/L, which is roughly consistent with the results for older children in the study by Latif et al , but somewhat lower than the rate found in the study by Dosman et al 2006 . Combining the results of all three studies, anemia seems to be a common problem in young children with autism (below age 5), but perhaps less common in older children with autism, likely consistent with the general population. 2b1af7f3a8